This article provides guidance for incorporating gender analysis into health systems research (HSR). It emphasizes that gender power relations affect how people interact with and within health systems, shaping needs, experiences, and outcomes. As such, accounting for gender is critical for producing valid and reliable HSR evidence.  

The authors outline practical ways to build gender considerations into HSR content, process, and outcomes. For HSR content, they recommend using sex-disaggregated data as a starting point to reveal gender differences; applying gender analysis frameworks (e.g. examining access to resources, division of labor, social norms, decision-making rules) to further examine the power relations underlying observed differences; and tailoring gender analysis questions to the health system domain studied. For HSR process, they emphasize reflecting on how research may introduce gender bias in the data collection and analysis phases. Lastly, they advocate for transforming gender relations in health systems. Overall, the authors conclude that incorporating gender analysis leads to better HSR and more effective policies. 

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